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Battery Type

  • SLI Battery : Starting, Lighting & Ignition Battery : Automotive Etc.
  • Deep Cycle Battery : A deep-cycle battery is a lead-acid battery designed to be regularly deeply discharge using most of its capacity. Forklift, Golf Cart, Lift Etc.
  • VRLA battery (SLA Battery) : Valve Regulated Lead Acid Battery (Sealed Lead Acid Battery). Commonly known as a sealed battery or maintenance free battery. There are two primary types of VRLA batteries, GEL Type and AGM Type.
    1. GEL Type : Gel cells adds silica dust to the electrolyte, forming a thick putty – like ge.l
    2. AGM Type : Absorbed Glass Matt forces fibreglass mesh between the battery plates with the same basic outcome.

Battery Facts

  • 12 Volt Battery has six cells : 2V * 6 cells = 12V
  • Each Cell is 2.13 Volts : 2.13V * 6 Cells = 12.78 Volts
  • 12.78 V or higher = Full Charge
  • Discharged Battery = 1.75 Volts per cell : -1.75V*6 Cells = 10.5 V (Low Voltage Cutoff) - < 12.0 V = Dischaged

How a Battery Works

Fully Charged Fully Discharged
POS(+)=PbO2 POS(+) = PbSO4
NEG(-) = Pb NEG(-) = PbSO4
Electrolyte = 2H2SO4 Electrolyte = H2O
-SpG (Specific Gravity) =1.265 to 1.275+ -SpG(Specific Gravity) = ~1.150

Why Batteries Fail

  • Overcharging – Corroded plates – Water loss (Gel or Separator dry-out).
  • Undercharging – Sulfation & Corrosion.
  • Discharged Storage – Sulfation, Corrosion & Hydration.
  • Over – Discharging – POS (+) Plate damage.
  • Abuse – Dropped / cracked – Broken posts – High heat – Poor Quality controls of product.
  • Poor Maintenance
    • Lack of systematic power supply maintenance
    • Lack of testing.


1. How do batteries work?
2. How many volts does one battery cell produce?
3. What comes out of a battery?
4. What happens as all the amps get used up?
5. How do i determine the battery state of charge?
6. What if there are no removable vent caps?
7. My battery reads 13.2 Volts... Is it overcharged?
8. Do i really have to do all this before testing the battery?
9. How do i recharge the battery?
10. I don't have time for a slow charge! What's wrong with quick charging?
11. How long do i leave it on fast charge?
12. How do i monitor the battery?
13. What do i do with the old junk battery?
14. This battery was only 3 years old, what caused it to fail?
15. What causes sulfation?

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